Phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis flower extracts

Kumara Swamy M, Sudipta K M, Lokesh P, M Neeki A, Rashmi W, S Bhaumik H, S Darshil H, Vijay R, Kashyap SSN


Various flower extracts (Chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water) of Bougainvillea spectabilis were screened for their phytochemical constituents and also investigated for their antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical screening of flower extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoides, phlobatannins and terpenoids. Steroids, phenol, tannins, cardinolides and volatile oils were absent in all the extracts. All flower extracts of B. spectabilis inhibited the growth of few of the bacterial and fungal strains tested with varied effectiveness. The maximum antibacterial activities were observed in ethanol and water extracts.  The maximum antifungal activities were observed in chloroform and ethanol extracts.  Thus the bioactive natural products in flower extracts of Bougainvillea spectabilis can be used in the development of new pharmaceuticals that address unmet therapeutic use.


Antimicrobial, phytochemical screening, Bougainvillea spectabilis, medicinal plant

Full Text:



Chariandy CM, Seaforth CE, Phelps RH. Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. J. Ethnopharmacol.1999;64: 265-270.

Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. The influence of natural products upon drug discovery. Nat. Prod. Reports.2000;17: 215-234.

Umamaheswari A, Shreevidya R and Aparna Nuni. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves Extracts. Advances in Biological Research. 2 (1-2): 2008;01-05

Fransworth NR. Biological and Phytochemical screening of plants. J. Pharm. Sci.2008; 35: 225-276.

Srivastava J, J Lambert and N Vietmeyer. Medicinal plants: An expanding role in development. 2008; World Bank Technical Paper. No. 320.

Balandrin MF, JA Klocke, ES Wurtele and WH Bollinger. Natural plant chemicals: Sources of Industrial and Medicinal materials Science. 1985; 228: 1154-1160.

Balasaraswathi R, S Sadasivam, M Ward and JM Walker. An antiviral protein from Bougainvillea spectabilis roots; Purification and characterization. Phytochemistry.1998; 47(8): 1561-1565.

Pun KB, D Sabitha and R Jeyarajan. Screening of plant species for the presence of antiviral principles against okra yellow vein mosaic virus. Indian Journal of Phytopathology.1998; 52(3): 221-223.

Joshi DD, AM Mujumdar and CR Narayanan. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.46(5): 1998; 187-188.

Narayanan CR, DD Joshi and AM Mujumdar. Hypoglycemic action of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves. Curr. Sci. 53: 1998; 579-581.

Davidson MB, AL Peters and DL Schriger. An alternative approach to the diagnosis of diabetes with a review of literature. Diabetes Care. 8: 1998; 1065-1071.

Mishra N, Joshi S, Tandon VL, Munjal A. Evaluation of anti-fertility potential of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves in Swiss albino mice. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research. 1(1): 1998; 19- 23.

JB Harborne. Methods of extraction and isolation, In: Phytochemical Methods, Chapman & Hall, London. 1998; 60-66.

Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol.1966; 45: 493-496.

Masotti V, F Juteau, JM Bessiere and J Viano. Seasonal and phonological variations of the essential oil from the narrow endemic species Artemisia molinieri and its biological activities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.2003; 51: 7115-7121.

Angioni A, A Barra, V Coroneo, S Dessi and P Cabras. Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. Stoechas essential oils from stem/ leaves and flowers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.2006; 54: 4364-4370.

Al-Zubaydi SR, MA Al-Hmdany and SJ Raesan. Antibactrial effect of some medicinal plant extracts against some pathogenic bacteria strains. Journal of Duhok University.2009; 12(1): 244-249.

Bakht J, M Tayyab, H Ali, A Islam and M Shafi. Effect of different solvent extracted sample of Allium sativum (Linn) on bacteria and fungi. African Journal of Biotechnology.2011; 10(31): 5910-5915.

Boklari FM. Antifungal activity of some medicinal plants used in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Mycopathologia.2009; 7(1): 51-57.

Bedi N, PMS Bedi, HS Bodiwala, IP Singh and P Bansal. Scientific evaluation of an innovative herbal medicine for relief in respiratory disorders. Canadian journal of pure & applied sciences.2010; 4(3): 1249- 1255.

Valsaraj R, Pushpangadan P, Smith UW, Adsersen A, Nyman U. Antimicrobial screening of selected medicinal plants from India. J. Ethnopharmacol.1997; 58: 75-83.

Oyeleke SB, Dauda BN, Boye OA. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis. Afr. J. Biotechnol.2000; 7(10): 1414-1417.

Shilpa BML, Sonia KV, Chetan K, Sukesh K, Chandrasekhar R. Antimicrobial sectrum and phytochemical study of Hopea parviflora Beddome saw dust extract. J. Phytol.2009; 1(6): 469-474.

Hegazi AG, Abd El Hady FK, Abd Allah FA. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of European propolis. Z. Naturforsch. C.2000;55:70–5.

Tsao TF, Newman MG, Kwok YY, Horikoshi AK. Effect of Chinese and western antimicrobial agents on selected oral bacteria. J. Dent. Res. 1982;61:1103–6.

Cowan MM. Plant products as Antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 564-583.

Draughon FA (2004). Use of Botanicals as Biopreservatives in foods. Food Technol.1999; 58(2): 20-28.

Soetan KO, Oyekunle MA Aiyelaagbe OO and Fafunso MA. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of saponins extract of Sorghum Bicolor L. Moench. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006; 5(23): 2405-2407.

Tschesche R, Wulff G. Chemistry and Biology of saponins Fortschr. Chem.Org. Naturist 1973; 30: 461.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

                AR Journals

Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India

     (Design) 2009-2021


Follow @arjournals on Twitter