Antivenom activity of ethanolic extract of Crescentia cujete fruit

Shastry CS, Aswathanarayana BJ, Bhalodia Maulik M


In almost every part of the world, where venomous snakes occur, numerous plant species are used as folk medicine to treat snake bite. Ayurveda states usage of specific plants against specific snake bite. Hence the present study was carried out to evaluate the antivenom activity of ethanolic extracts of Crescentia cujete fruit in experimental animals.

The Crescentia cujete fruit was extracted using ethanol and tested for acute toxicity according to OECD 425 guidelines. The ethanolic extract of Crescentia cujete fruit at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were screened for the antivenom activity by in-vivo and in-vitro neutralizing capacity of lethality and neutralization of haemorrhagic lesion.

The fruit extract at dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg effectively inhibited Vipera russelli venom induced in-vitro lethality with 83.33% and 100% survival rate against 2LD50 respectively. The survival rate remains 50% and 83.33% with 200 and 400 mg/kg doses respectively against 3LD50. Whereas dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibit venom induced in-vivo lethality with 66% and 50% survival rate against 2LD50 and 3LD50 respectively. Haemorrhagic lesion was neutralizing at both dose levels with highly significant at 200 mg/kg dose.

Hence the present findings suggest that ethanolic extract of Crescentia cujete fruit possesses significant neutralizing capacity of snake Vipera russelli venom which may be beneficial in the treatment of snake bite. Further study on isolation of active constituent from this plant extract is needed for development of new chemical antidote for snake envenomation.


Crescentia cujete fruit; Vipera russelli venom; antivenom; lethality; haemorrhagic lesion.

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