A Brief Review on phytoconstituents and Ethnopharmacology of Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Scrophulariaceae)

Manas Ranjan Mishra, R. K. Behera, S. Jha, A. K. Panda, A. Mishra, D. K. Pradhan, P. R. Choudary


Scoparia dulcis Linn.(S. dulcis)or sweet broom weed commonly known as Mithipatti and Bana Dhania in Western Orissa, it is also known as ‘GhodaTulsi’in Hindi. The present review attempts to narrate the chemical constituents of S.dulcis and their uses. S.dulcis is rich in flavones, terpenes and steroids. Main chemical constituents such as scoparic acid A-C, scopadulcic acid A and B, scopadulciol, scopadulin and ammelin have been shown to contribute to the observed medicinal effect of the plant. In this review we have composed the structure and functions of those active ingredients with their melting point and other physical properties individually.Some aspects of the several speculated pharmacological properties of S. dulcis have been validated by scientific research, which includes the presence of hypoglycaemic and anti-tumour promoting compound. It also has antimicrobial and antifungal effects as well as antihyperlipidemic action.


Scoparia dulcis; scoparic acid; ammelin; medicinal effect.

Full Text:



Branch LC, IMF da Silva. Folk medicine of Alter does chao, para. Branza Acta Amazonica. 1983, (13) 737-767.

Satyanarayana K. Chemical examination of Scoparia dulcis (Linn.) Part-I.J. Indian Chem. Soc. 1969, (46) 765-766.

H.O. Edeoga, D. E. Okwu and B.O Mbaebie. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal Plants. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7), pp. 685-688 July 2005.

Chow SY, S.M.Chen, C.M. Yang. H.Hsu. Pharmacological studies on Chinese herbs. 1. Hypotensive effect of 30 Chinese herbs. Taiwan Yi XueZaZhi. 1974, (73) 729-739.

Hayashi K, Toshimitsu H, Naokata M. Cytotoxic and antitumor activity of scopadulcic acid from Scoparia dulcis L. Phytother Res 1992; 6: 6-9.

Asano S, Mizutani M, Hayashi T, Morita N, Takeguchi N. Reversible inhibitions ofgastric H+ K+ ATPase by scopadulcic acid B and diacetyl scopadol: Newbiochemical tools of H+ K+ ATPase. J Biol Chem 1990; 265: 22167-22173.

Hayashi K, Jung BL, Yoshie M, Naoki T, Hideo N, Toshimitsu Hayashi. The role ofa HSV thymidine kinase stmulating substance scopadulciol in improving the efficacyof cancer gene therapy. J Gene Med 2006; 8: 1056-1062.

The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Medicinal and Industrial Product. First supp. Series (Raw materials) 5V, National Institute of science communication and information resources, CSIR, New Delhi. 2004; p. 87.

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, 2001. Indian system of Medicine & Homeopathy, Govt. of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, The Controller of Publication Civil Lines, Delhi , I ed , V -III, p.234.

Branch LC, daSilva IMF. Folk medicine of Alter do chao, Para, Brazil, Acta Amazonica, 1983; 13(5/6): 737-797.

Denis P. Herbal Medicine among the Miskito of Eastern Nicaragua. Econ.Bot. 1988; 42(1): 16-28.

Hayashi T., Kishi M., Kawasaki M., Arisawa M., Shimizu M., Suzuki S., Yoshizaki M., Morita N, Tezuka Y, Kikuchi T, Berganza LH, Ferro E, Basualdo I. Scopadulcic acid-A and -B, new diterpenoids with a novel skeleton, from a Paraguayan crude drug “typychá kuratũ” (Scoparia dulcis L.).Tetrahedron Lett. 1987, (28) 3693–3696.

Hayashi T, Okamura K, Kakemi M, Asano S, Mizutani M, Takeguchi N, Kawasaki M, Tezuka Y, Kikuchi T, Morita N, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990, 38 (10), 2740–2745.

Kawasaki M, Hayashi T, Arisawa M, Shimizu M, Horie S, Ueno H, Syogawa H, Suzuki S, Yoshizaki M, Morita N, Tezuka Y, Kikuchi T, Berganza LH, Ferro E, Basualdo I, Structure of scoparic acid A, a new labdane-type diterpenoid from a paraguayan crude drug "typycha kurata" (Scoparia dulcis l.).Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1987, (35) 3963–3966.

Hayashi T, Kawasaki M, Okamura K, Tamada Y, Morita N, Tezuka Y, Kikuchi T, Miwa Y, Taga T, Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis. J. Nat. Prod., 1992, (55) 1748–1755.

Hee-Kap Kang, Diane Ecklund, Michael Liu,Syamal K Datta

a. http://arthritis-research.com/content/11/2/R59. 09/02/12

naturactiva.net/articles/benefits_shea_butter.doc . 09/02/12

http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/acacetin.html. 09/02/12

Hashimoto N, Yamashita T, Tsuruzoe N. Tertiapin, a selective IKACh blocker, terminates atrial fibrillation with selective atrial effective refractory period prolongation. Pharmacol Res. 2006, (54) 136 –141.


Faujan NH, Alitheen NB, Yeap SK, Ali AM, Muhajir AH, Ahmad FBH. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010, 9(38) 6387-6396.

Perumal Yogeeswari,Dharmarajan Sriram. Betulinic Acid and Its Derivatives: A Review on their Biological Properties . Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2005, (12) 657-666.

Simone Fulda. Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention. .Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, (9) 1096-1107.

Zikmundova M., Drandarov K., Bigler L., Hesse M., Werner C. Biotransformation of 2-Benzoxazolinone and 2-Hydroxy-1,4-Benzoxazin-3-one by Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Aphelandra tetragona. Applied And Environmental Microbiology. 2002, 68 (10) 4863–4870.

http://www.znaturforsch.com/ac/v59c/s59c0177.pdf. 09/02/12

Girotti C., Ginet M., Demarne F.C., Lagarde M., Géloën A. Lipolytic activity of cirsimarin extracted from Microtea debilis.Planta Med.. 2005, 71(12):1170-2.

www.chemblink.com/products/13020-19-4.htm. 09/02/12

Saikat Sen, Raja Chakraborty, Biplab De, Joydeep Mazumder. Plants and phytochemicals for peptic ulcer: An overview. Phcog Rev. 2009, 3 (6) 270-279.

Park JC, Park JG, Kim HJ, Hur JM, Lee JH, Sung NJ, Chung SK, Choi JW. Effects of extract from Angelica keiskei and its component, cynaroside, on the hepatic bromobenzene-metabolizing enzyme system in rats. Phytother Res. 2002, 16 1:S24-7.

Xiao Sun, Gui-boSun, MinWang,Jing Xiao,Xiao-bo Sun. Protective effects of cynaroside against H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 2011, 112 (8) 2019–2029.

Ferguson LR, Shuo-tun Z, Harris PJ. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of plant cell wall hydroxycinnamic acids in cultured HT-29. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2005, 49 (6) 585–693.

www.chemblink.com/products/608-66-2.htm. 09/02/12

Lee JH, Lee JY, Park JH, Jung HS, Kim JS, Kang SS, Kim YS, Han Y. Immunoregulatory activity by daucosterol, a beta-sitosterol glycoside, induces protective Th1 immune response against disseminated Candidiasis in mice. Vaccine, 2007, 25(19) 3834-40.

Moore WE, Bope FW, Christensens BV. Some new derivatives of gentisic acid. II. Pharmacological tests upon some new derivatives of gentisic acid. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1954, 6 (43) 334–337.

www.chemblink.com/products/559-74-0.htm. 09/02/12

www.molecular-networks.com/biopath3/biopath/mols/Glutinol. 09/02/12

Kamaliah Mahmood, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Rohana Yusof, Hamid Hadi A, Mary Pais. Chemical Components from the Light Petroleum Soluble Fraction of Uvaria cordata (Dunal) Alston. Pertanika J. Sci. & Techno. 1995, 3(2) 197-202.

Watson WH, Kashyap RP, Gao F, Mabry TJ. Structure of the flavone hymenoxin. ActaCrystallogr C. 1991, 15 (47) (Pt 2) 459-61.

Atta-ur- Rahman, Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Bioactive Natural Products, 1st Edn. Elsevier. 2005, Volume 32, pp.1127-1201.

www.tradingchem.com/Ifflaionic_acid/6805-19-2.html. 09/02/12

Atta-ur- Rahman, Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Bioactive Natural Products (Part B), Part 2, 1st Edn. Elsevier. 2000, pp.690-693.

Sebastián Fernández, Cristina Wasowski, Alejandro C Paladini, Mariel Marder. Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2004, 77 (2) 399-404.

Chowdhury AR, Sharma S, Mandal S, Goswami A, Mukhopadhyay S, Majumder HK. Luteolin, an emerging anti-cancer flavonoid, poisons eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase Biochem. J. 2002, 366 653-661.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luteolin. 09/02/12

Kelley KW, Johnson RW. Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105 (21), 7534–9.

Mann John., Secondary Metabolism. 2nd Edn, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 1992, pp.279–280.

Ikeda M, Bhattacharjee AK, Kondoh T, Nagashima T, Tamaki N. Synergistic Effect of Cold Mannitol and Na+/Ca2+ Exchange Blocker on Blood–Brain Barrier Opening Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002, 291 669-674.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannitol. 09/02/12

http://www.chemicalbook.com/Search_EN.aspx?keyword=Scutellarein. 09/02/12

www.chemfaces.com/manual/Scoparinol-CFN99397.pdf. 09/02/12

Bouic PJ. The Role of Phytosterols and Phytosterolins in Immune Modulation: A Review of the Past 10 Years. CurrOpinClinNutrMetabCare. 2001, 4 471-475.

www.selleckchem.com/products/Stigmasterol(Stigmasterin).html. 09/02/12

Panda S, Jafri M, Kar A and Meheta BK. Thyroid inhibitory, antiperoxidative and hypoglycemic effects of stigmasterol isolated from Butea monosperma. Fitoterapia. 2009, 80 (2) 123-126.

http://www.drugfuture.com/chemdata/luteolin.html. 09/02/12

Nagaprashantha LD, Vatsyayan R, Singhal J, Fast S, Roby R, Awasthi S, Singhal SS. Anti-cancer effects of novel flavonoid vicenin-2 as a single agent and in synergistic combination with docetaxel in prostate cancer. BiochemPharmacol, 2011, 82(9) 1100-9.

http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=12381. 09/02/12

http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb/51/10/51_1204/_article/-char/en. 09/02/12.

Kim JH, Lee BC, Kim JH, Sim GS, Lee DH, Lee KE, Yun YP, Pyo HB. The isolation and antioxidative effects of vitexin from Acer palmatum. Arch Pharm Res. 2005, 28 (2) 195-202.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitexin. 09/02/12

Freire SMF, Torres LMB, Roque NF, Souccar C. Analgesic activity of a triterpene isolated from ScopariadulcisL. (Vassourinha). Memórias do InstitutoOswaldo Cruz. 1991, (86) 149-151.

FariasFreie SM, Silva Emin JA, Lapa AJ, Souccar C &Brandao Torres LM. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Scoparia dulcis L. extract and glutinol in rodents. Phytotherapy Research. 1993, (7) 408-414.

Ahmed M, Shikha HA, Sadhu SK, Rahman MT, Datta BK. Analgesic, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory principle from Scopariadulcis. Pharmazie, 2001, 56(8) 657-660

Latha M, Pari L, Sitasawad S, Bhonde R. Insulin secretagogue activity and cytoprotective role of the traditional antidiabetic plant Scoparia dulcis ,Life Sci. 2004, 75(16): 2003-2014.

Pari L, Latha M. Antihypoglycaemic activity of Scopariadulcis: effect on key metabolic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Pharm. Biol. 2004, 42(8) 570-576.

Pari L, Venkateswaran. Hypoglycaemic activity of Scopariadulcis L. extract in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats, PPhytotherapy Research. 2002, 16(7) 662- 664.

Nishino H Anti-tumor promoting activity of Scopadulcic Acid B, Isolated from the medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis. L. Oncology. 1993, 50(2) 100-103.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

                AR Journals

Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India

              Copyright@arjournals.org (Design) 2009-2021


Follow @arjournals on Twitter