Antioxidant and iron chelating potential of Pongammia pinnata and its role in preventing free radical induced oxidative damage in plasmid DNA

Bibhabasu Hazra, Rhitajit Sarkar, Santanu Biswas, Nripendranath Mandal


Context: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radical-mediated reactions are involved in degenerative or pathological processes. Antioxidants are believed to play an important role in preventing chronic diseases by reducing the oxidative damage to cellular components caused by ROS.

Objective: In the present study, Pongamia pinnata leaf (PPL), seed (PPS), and flower (PPF) were investigated for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH method, scavenging activities for different free radicals such as hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in mice brain homogenate, reducing power, iron chelating and protection of DNA damage caused by free radicals.

Results: PPL showed the best antioxidant activity compared to both PPS and PPF. The extract of PPL possessed most potent activity compared to other extracts in scavenging assay for singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical. PPF exhibited strongest inhibitory activity against hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite anion among these three extracts. PPL was the best amongst three to inhibit lipid peroxidation and Fe2+-ferrozine complex formation. PPL was also found effective in protecting plasmid DNA nicking at lower concentration while both PPS and PPF did the same at higher concentration. PPL presented highest content of phenolics and flavonoids among these three extracts.

Conclusion: The present results show that Pongammia pinnta acts as an antioxidant, iron chelator and protector of oxidative DNA damage.

Full Text:



Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine. 3rd ed. London, Oxford University Press, 1999.

Farber JL. Mechanisms of cell injury by activated oxygen species. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102:17-24.

Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation and aging. Science. 1992;257:1220-1224.

Maxwell SR. Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies. Drugs. 1995;49:345-361.

Ames SN, Shigrenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidant, antioxidant and degenerative disease of aging. Proc Nat Acad Sci. 1993;90:7915-7922.

Takagi A, Sekita K, Saitoh M, Kanno J. Acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity studies of a synthetic antioxidant, 2,2’-isobutylidenebis(4,6-dimethylphenol) in rats. J Toxic Sci. 2005;30:275-285.

Jaiswal SK., Dubey MK., Das S, Verma AR, Rao CV. A comparative study on total phenolic content, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity of aerial parts of Barleria prionitis. Int J Phytomedicine. 2010;2:155-159.

Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH, Farooq S. Efficient free radical scavenging activity of Ginkgo biloba, Stevia rebaudiana and Parthenium hysterophorous leaves through DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Int J Phytomedicine. 2010;2:231-239.

Satyavati GV, Gupta AK, Tandon N. Medicinal plants of India. Vol. 2. Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 1987.

Sangwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA. A review on Pongamia Pinnata (L.) Pierre: A great versatile leguminous plant. Nature and Science. 2010;8:130-139.

Manandhar NP. Plants and people of Nepal. USA, Timber Press, 2002.

Ambasta SP, Ramchandran K, Kashyapa K, Chand R. The useful plants of India. New Delhi, CSIR, 1992.

Badole SL, Bodhankar SL. Antidiabetic activity of cycloart-23-ene-3β, 25-diol (B2) isolated from Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre) in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;632:103-109.

Punitha R, Manohar S. Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;105:39-46.

Srinivasan K, Muruganandan S, Lal J, Chandra S, Tandon SK, Prakash VR. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78:151-157.

Simonsen HT, Nordskjold JB, Smitt UW, Nyman U, Palpu P, Joshi P, Varughese G. In vitro screening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;74:195-204.

Baswa M, Rath CC, Dash SK, Mishra RK. Antibacterial activity of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil: a preliminary report. Microbios. 2001;105:183-189.

Rameshthangam P, Ramasamy P. Antiviral activity of bis (2-methylheptyl) phthalate isolated from Pongamia pinnata leaves against White Spot Syndrome Virus of Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Virus Res. 2007;126:38-44.

Akhtar AH, Ahmad KD, Gilani SN, Nazir A. Antiulcer effects of aqueous extracts of Nigella sativa and Pongamia pinnata in rats. Fitotera. 1996;67:195-199.

Vismaya, Belagihally SM, Rajashekhar S, Jayaram VB, Dharmesh SM, Thirumakudalu SKC. Gastroprotective properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) seeds; role as antioxidant and H+,K+-ATPase inhibitor. eCAM. 2010;doi:10.1093/ecam/neq027.

Essa MM, Subramanian P. Pongamia pinnata modulates the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Fundam Clin Pharm. 2006;20:299-303.

Shirwaikar A, Malini S, Kumari SC. Protective effect of Pongamia pinnata flowers against cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Ind J Exp Biol. 2003;41:58-62.

Srinivasan K, Muruganandan S, Lal J, Chandra S, Tandan SK, Raviprakash V, Kumar D. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Pongamia pinnata leaves. Phytother Res. 2003;17:259-264.

Tanaka T, Inuma M, Yuki K, Fuji Y, Mizuno M. Flavonoids in root bark of Pongamia pinnata. Phytochemistry. 1992;31:993-998.

Ghosh A, Mandal S, Banerji A, Banerji J. A new biflavonyloxymethane from Pongamia pinnata. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1213-1214.

Yadav PP, Ahmad G, Maurya R. Furanoflavonoids from Pongamia pinnata fruits. Phytochemistry. 2004;65:439-443.

Scott PT, Pregelj L, Chen N, Hadler JS, Djordjevic MA, Gresshoff PM. Pongamia pinnata: an untapped resource for the biofuels industry of the future. Bioenergy Res. 2008;1:2-11.

Mandal S, Hazra B, Sarkar R, Biswas S, Mandal N. Assessment of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Caesalpinia crista leaf. eCAM. 2009;doi:10.1093/ecam/nep072.

Hazra B, Sarkar R, Biswas S, Mandal N. The antioxidant, iron chelating and DNA protective properties of 70% methanolic extract of ‘Katha’ (Heartwood extract of Acacia catechu). J Compl Integr Med. 2010;7(1): article 5.

Yazdanparast R, Ardestani A. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Cyperus rotundus. J Med Food. 2007;10:667-674.

Korycka-Dahl M, Richardson T. Photogeneration of superoxide anion in serum of bovine milk and in model systems containing riboflavin and amino acids. J Dairy Sci. 1978;61:400-407.

Dawson TM, Dawson VL, Snyder SH. A novel neuronal messenger molecule in brain: the free radical, nitric oxide. Annu Neurol. 1992;32:297-311.

Balavoine GG, Geletti YV. Peroxynitrite scavenging by different antioxidants. Part 1: convenient study. Nitric oxide. 1999;3:40-54.

Kochevar EI, Redmond WR. Photosensitized production of singlet oxygen. Methods Enzymol. 2000;319:20-28.

Aruoma OI, Halliwell B, Hoey BM, Butler J. The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: Its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Rad Biol Med. 1989;6:593-597.

Hippeli S, Elstner EF. Transition metal ion-catalyzed oxygen activation during pathogenic processes. FEBS Lett. 1999;443:1-7.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. Structure-antioxidant activity relationship of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Rad Biol Med. 1996;20:933-956.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

                AR Journals

Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India

     (Design) 2009-2021


Follow @arjournals on Twitter