Antiepileptic Activity of Unmadgajakesari – A Herbomineral Formulation: An Experimental Evaluation

Rajeeta Joseph, Vijaya Pandit, Asmita Wele, Gourav Deshmane

Abstract


Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder characterized by episodes of recurrent unprovoked seizures Unmadgajakesari(UGK) is a herbomineral formulation claimed to be useful in epilepsy in traditional medicine. Lack of scientific evidence of  UGK for its use in epilepsy lead to the objective of the present work.

 To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of Unmadgajakesari in animal models

 After doing the acute toxicity study of  UGK, it was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity in Maximal Electroshock(MES) and Pentylenetetrazole(PTZ) induced seizures models in albino wistar rats. For each study animals were divided into 6 groups, each group comprising of 6 animals . Group I –Normal control, Group II-Vehicle control(ghrita), Group III- Drug control(positive control). In test groups(IV-VI) UGK was administered in doses of  70, 140 and 280mg/kg  orally for 8days. Antiepileptic activity was evaluated  on day 1and 8.

UGK was found to be nontoxic upto dose of 2000mg/kg. Significant antiepileptic activity was observed in both the groups on 8th day of UGK  administration. In the MES model, significant abolition of tonic hind limb extension was observed in dose of 280mg/kg. In PTZ model, UGK was most effective in the dose of 70mg/kg in delaying the onset and  reducing  the severity of clonic convulsions. No adverse effects or mortality was seen in this study.

UGK appears to  have significant antiepileptic activity after repeated administration. With wide spectrum of action, this drug may be useful addition to antiepileptic agents.


Keywords


Unmadgajakesari; Antiepileptic; Gabaergic; Antioxidant

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fisher RS, Van Emde Boas W, Blume W, et al. Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia 2005;46(4):470-2.

Giuliano Avanzini and L. Prilipko., Epilepsy Care in the World WHO 2005. Epilepsy Atlas, 2005

Werner F-M, Coveñas R. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in generalized epilepsy: a focus on antiepileptic drugs. Curr Med Chem 2011;18: 4933–48.

Brian S. Meldrum and Michael A. Rogawski. Molecular Targets for Antiepileptic Drug Development: Neurotherapeutics. 2007 January ; 4(1): 18–61.

Czuczwar, S.J.; Patsalos, P.N. The new generation of GABA enhancers. CNS Drugs 2001, 15,339-350.

Deckers, C.L.P.; Czuczwar, S.J.; Hekster, Y.A.; Keyser, A.; Kubova, H.; Meinardi, H.; Patsalos, P.; Renier, W.O.; van Rijn, C.M. Selection of antiepileptic drug polytherapy based on mechanism of action: the evidence reviewed. Epilepsia 2000, 41, 1364-1374.

Sobieszek, G.; Borowicz, K.K.; Kimber-Trojnar, Z.; Malek, R.; Piskorska, B.; Czuczwar, S.J. Zonisamide: A new antiepileptic drug. Pol. J. Pharmacol. 2003, 55, 683-689.

Löscher W.: Current status and future directions in the pharmacotherapy of epilepsy. Trends Pharmacol. Sci.,2002, 23, 113–118.

Amos S, Kolawole E, Akah P, Wambebe C, Gamaniel K. Behavioral effects of the aqueous extract of Guiera senegalensis in mice and rats. Phytomedicine.2001;8:356-361.

Vd Pandit editor, Rasayogsagar, Haripranpannaji, Vol 1, Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi, pp 177, verse 1666; 2004

Vd. Datto.Borkar, RasaChandanshu - UnmadChikitsa -13 Chapters. Publication-Ramesh Vitthal Raghuvansha, Shri gajanan book depo, Kabutar Khana, Dadar-Mumbai-28.

OECD, 2002. Acute oral toxicity. Acute oral toxic class method guideline 423 adopted 23.03.1996. In: Eleventh Addendum to the, OECD, guidelines for the testing of chemicals organisation for economical co-operation and development, Paris, June, 2000.

Ghosh M. N., Fundamental of experimental Pharmacology; 3rd Ed.; Hilton and company Kolkatta, 2005. Chapter 30, page no.192-193.

Walker, M.C. and Fisher, A. (2004) Mechanisms of antiepileptic drug action. In Shorvon, S.D.,Perucca, E., Fish, D.R. and Dodson, W.E. (eds), The Treatment of Epilepsy . Blackwell: Oxford . 2004.

Krall RL, Penry JK, White BG, Kupferberg HJ, Swinyard EA. Anti-epileptic drug development. II. Anticonvulsant drug screening. Epilepsia 1978;19:404–428.

Sayyah M, Mandgary A, Kamalinejad M. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the seed acetone extract of Ferula gummosa Boiss against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and electroconvulsive shock in mice. J Ethanopharmacol 2002; 82(2-3): 105-109.

Kaushik D, Kumar A, Kaushik P, Rana AC. Anticonvulsant activity of alcoholic extract of bark of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. J Chin Integr Med / Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012; 10(9): 1056-1060.

Susanta Kumar Rout,1 Durga Madhab Kar. A review on antiepileptic agents, current research and Future prospectus on conventional and traditional drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. July –August 2010 , Volume 3, Issue 2,19-23.

Clarkson TW, Magos L: The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 2006, 36:609–662.

Bandari Srinivasulu, Bhadra Dev, H. C. Murthy. Sodhana of gandhaka (sulphur) with godugdha (cow’s milk), gogrutha (cow ’s ghee): a chemical analysis.

Sawant Ranjeet, Bhoyar Manish. Pharmaceutics & Therapeutics of Kajjali (Black Sulphide of Mercury) - A review Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development Vol.1 (3) May– June 2013: 92-97.

Naveen Kodlady, M.S Doddamani, Y. Vishwanath, B.J Patgiri. Sedative Hypnotic Activity of Manashila(Realgar) – An Experimental Evaluation. Ancient Science of Life. Vol 30, No 3(2011), 78-83.

Vishal Shah, N. D. Shah N. D, Shinde S.S. Solanaceae: Historical Aspect. International journal of pharmaceutical research And bio-science 2012: Volume1 (3):90-95.

Hanan A. Al-Ashaal, Mona E. Aboutabl, Yousreya A. Maklad, Ahmed A. El-Beih. Tropane alkaloids of Atropa belladonna L.: in vitro production and pharmacological profile. Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal 2013, 12:130–135.

Wudayagiri Rajendra, Paturu Suseela, Gunduluru Swathi. Anticonvulsant Effect Of Different Extracts Of Bacopa Monnieri On Cholinergic Metabolism During Pentylenetetrazole -Induced Epilepsy. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 2013 Volume (3): 194-200.

Sharma JD, Dandiya PC, Baxter RM and Kandl SI (1961). Nature: 192: 299.

Jing-Kun Miao, Qi-Xiong Chen, Xiao-Mei Wu, Chun Li and Xiao-Ping Zhang, 2012. Antiepileptic Properties of Alpha-asarone from Acori Graminei Rhizoma in Mice and Rats Seizure Models. International Journal of Pharmacology, 8: 567-571.

Gopalakrishna H.N, Sudhakar Pemminati, Shilin Giri, Ashok K Shenoy, G.K.S. Holla, Vinod Nair, Alwar MC, Sheethal D.Ullal. Effect Of Acorus Calamus On Electrical And Chemical Induced Seizures In Mice International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology Aug-Oct -2010 Volume: I: Issue-2: .

Hazra R, Ray K, Guha D. Inhibitory role of Acorus calamus in ferric chloride-induced epileptogenesis in rat. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2008; 26(12):947-53.

Kasture VS, Deshmukh VK, Chopde CT. Anxiolytic and anticonvulsive activity of Sesbania grandiflora leaves in experimental animals. Phytother Res. 2002 Aug;16(5):455-60.

Doddola S, Pasupulati H, Koganti B, Prasad KV. Evaluation of Sesbania grandiflora for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant properties .J Nat Med. 2008;62(3):300-307.

Ali Esmail Al-Snafi. The pharmacology of Bacopa monniera. A review . International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research. Dec 2013 Vol 4 No 12 ;154-159.

Khan R, Krishnakumar A, Paulose CS. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract. Epilepsy and Behav 2008;12:54-60.

Ganguly DK, Malhotra CL. Some behavioural effects of an active fraction from Herpestis monniera , Linn. (Brahmi). Ind J Med Res 1967;55:473-482.

Saxena VS, Nadkarni VV. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2011;14:148e152


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2015

                AR Journals

Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India

              Copyright@arjournals.org (Design) 2009-2021

 

Follow @arjournals on Twitter