Drug delivery to eye: Special reference to nanoparticles

Swarnali Das, Preeti K. Suresh

Abstract


Controlled and sustained delivery of ophthalmic drugs continues to remain a major focus area in the field of pharmaceutical drug delivery with the emergence of new, more potent drugs and biological response modifiers that may also have very short biological half-lives. The major objective of clinical therapeutics is to provide and maintain adequate concentration of drugs at the site of action. In ocular drug delivery, the physiological constraints imposed by the protective mechanisms of the eye lead to poor absorption of drugs with very small fractions of the instilled dose penetrating the cornea and reaching the intraocular tissues. The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the eye render this organ highly impervious to foreign substances. A significant challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage. Development of newer, more sensitive diagnostic techniques and novel therapeutic agents continue to provide ocular delivery systems with high therapeutic efficacy. Conventional ophthalmic solution, suspension, and ointment dosage forms no longer constitute optimal therapy for these indications. Nanoparticles and nanosuspensions are showing a better application as compare to conventional delivery sysyems. Polymer nanoparticles proposed are reported to be devoid of any irritant effect on cornea, iris, and conjunctiva and thus appear to be a suitable inert carrier for ophthalmic drug delivery. The benefits of having the drug in the form of a nanoparticulate suspension are: reduction in the amount of dose, drug release for a prolonged period of time, higher drug concentrations in the infected tissue, longer residence time of nanoparticles on the cornea surface, reduction systemic toxicity of drug.

Keywords: Nanoparticle; polymer; ocular; bioavailability


Keywords


Nanoparticle; polymer; ocular; bioavailability

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