Development of Acyclovir-loaded Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles for Ocular Drug Delivery

Pawinee Noomwong, Wantanee Ratanasak, Assadang Polnok, Narong Sarisuta


The aim of the present study was to develop acyclovir (ACV) ocular drug delivery systems of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as well as to assess their in vivo transcorneal permeability. The ACV-loaded nanoparticles with 4 % and 8 % drug loading were prepared by desolvation method. Morphology of the nanoparticles under scanning electron microscopy was spherical in shape and uniform in size. The mean sizes and entrapment efficiencies of ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles were in the range of 125 - 132 nm and 15 - 25 %, respectively. Increasing the amount of ACV added into the formulation led to significant reduction of entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles. The results from in vivo transcorneal permeation studies revealed that ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles could readily permeate through the rabbits’ cornea and bring about maximum ACV concentrations within 30 min and prolonged till 120 min.


Nanoparticles; Acyclovir; Bovine serum albumin; Transcorneal permeability; Ocular drug delivery

Full Text:



Chien YW. Ocular drug delivery and delivery systems. In: Chien YW, editor. Novel drug delivery systems, 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1992.

Desai SD, Blanchard J. Ocular drug formulation and delivery. In: Swarbrick J, Boylan JC, editors. Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technology. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1995. p. 43-75.

Zimmer AK, Zerbe H, Kreuter J. Evaluation of pilocarpine-loaded albumin particles as drug delivery systems for controlled delivery in the eye I. In vitro and in vivo characterization. J Cont Release. 1994;32(1):57-70.

Borlais CL, Acar L, Zia H, Sado PA, Needham T, Leverge R. Ophthalmic drug delivery systems - Recent advances. Prog Retin Eye Res. 1998;17(1):33-58.

Giannavola C, Bucolo C, Maltese A, Paolino D, Vandelli MA, Puglisi G, et al. Influence of preparation conditions on acyclovir-loaded poly-d,l- lactic acid nanospheres and effect of PEG coating on ocular drug bioavailability. Pharm Res. 2003;20(4):584-590.

Das SK, Tucker IG, Hill DJ, Ganguly N. Evaluation of poly(isobutyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles for mucoadhesive ocular drug delivery I. Effect of formulation variables on physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles. Pharm Res. 1995;12(4):534-540.

Zimmer A, Maincent P, Thouvenot P, Kreuter J. Hydrocortisone delivery to healthy and inflamed eyes using a micellar polysorbate 80 solution or albumin nanoparticles. Int J Pharm. 1994;110:211-222.

Zimmer AK, Chetoni P, Saettone MF, Zerbe H, Kreuter J. Evaluation of pilocarpine-loaded albumin particles as controlled drug delivery systems for the eye: II. Co-administration with bioadhesive and viscous polymers. J Cont Release. 1995;33:31-46.

Ludwig A. The use of mucoadhesive polymers in ocular drug delivery. Adv Drug Del Rev. 2005;57(11):1595-1639.

Leucuta S. The kinetics of in vitro release and the pharmacokinetics of miotic response in rabbits of gelatin and albumin microspheres with pilocarpine. Int J Pharm. 1989;54:71-78.

Schwartz GS, Holland EJ. Oral acyclovir for the management of herpes simplex virus keratitis in children. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(2):278-282.

Bartlett JD, editor. Ophthalmic drug facts 2006. Missouri: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2006.

Chetoni P, Rossi S, Burgalassi S, Monti D, Mariotti S, Saettone FM. Comparison of liposome-encapsulated acyclovir with acyclovir ointment: ocular pharmacokinetics in rabbits. J Ocular Pharmacol Ther. 2004;20(2):169-177.

Genta I, Conti B, Perugini P, Pavanetto F, Spadaro A, Puglisi G. Bioadhesive microspheres for ophthalmic administration of acyclovir. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997;49:737-742.

OECD. Guideline 405. Acute eye irritation/corrosion. 2002.

McCabe WL, Smith JC, Harriott P. Unit operations of chemical engineering. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1985.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

               AR Journals

18K, Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India (Design) 2009-2021


Follow @arjournals on Twitter