Optimization and effects of physico-chemical parameters on synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Ionic Gelation Technique

Pankaj Shard, Dipika Sharma, Aruna Bhatia


Background. Biopolymers are used as vehicles for the carrying drugs to their site of action. These polymers are less toxic and can even protect the drug entity from degradation in physiological conditions of the body. Large number of techniques are employed to prepare the nanoformulation of these polymers but ionic gelation is of great interest because no harsh and incompatible chemicals are used during the process. Chitosan nanoparticles are good drug carriers because of their good biocompatibility and biodegradability. As a new drug delivery system they have attracted attention due to their applications in loading protein, drugs etc.  In the present research ionic gelation technique have been optimized for the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles. Various physico-chemical parameters of Nanoparticles such as size, Zeta potential and poly dispersity index were evaluated under different process parameters.

Result: In current study ionic gelation technique had been optimized for the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles. We have evaluated the effect of various physico-chemical parameters such as type of polyanion, Sonication, surfactant etc and their effect on size and zeta potential of nanoparticles had been studied.

Conclusion: A novel Nanoparticle system composed of low molecular weight chitosan was successfully prepared in the present study by simple ionic-gelation techniques under aqueous-based conditions. It was observed that there was considerable effect of various physico- chemical parameters on size, zeta potential and polydispersity index of Nanoparticles prepared. Results shows that the size of Nanoparticles decreases with the increase in concentration of  Chitosan. Polyvinyl alcohol was found to be the best surfactant because it was very effective in decreasing the surface tension without increasing viscosity. Intermittent sonication during the process decreases the size of Nanoparticles considerably.Controled use of polyanions under different conditions can develop  negatively charged Nanoparticles that can be used for delivery of positively charded drugs and therapeutic molecules.


Chitosan , Poly Vinyl alcohol, Ionic Gelation technique, polydispersity index

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