Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Calophyllum rubiginosum

Suhaib Ibrahim Alkhamaiseh, Muhammad Taher, Farediah Ahmad, Deny Susanti, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan


Abstract: Clusiaceae / Guttiferae an evergreen shrubs or trees, it is considered as a family of 27 genera and 1090 species. Calophyllum rubiginosum one of these species and belongs to this family. In Malaysia they use it as folk remedies, where they believe its’ activity. Problem: Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of three fractions. n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) of Calophyllum rubiginosum species. Approach: The three main fractions were tested to find out the antioxidant capacity using three different methods, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. The fractions were tested against lung cancer A-549 cell line to assess the anti-proliferation activity. Results: The MeOH fraction showed no effect against lung cancer cell line but achieved a significant result in antioxidant testing. The DCM and n-hexane fractions considered as moderate antioxidant agent, they showed a significant result against lung cancer cell line. Non and semi polar fractions were able to inhibit the proliferation of A-549 cell line at low concentration. The results were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Conclusions: C. rubiginosum fractions have showed significant activity. DCM and n-hexane fractions proved to be effective against A-549 lung cancer cell line, where they were able to disturb the cell proliferation. These results can benefit the local community, and to guide how to use this plant.

Keywords: Calophyllum rubiginosum; Antioxidant; DPPH; Reducing power; Chelating iron ions; Cytotoxicity.

Full Text:



Amarowicz R, Pegg RB, Rahimi-Moghaddam P, Barl B, Weil JA. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian prairies. Food Chemistry. 2004; 84(4):551-562.

Kim, M.-B.; Park, J.-S.; Lim, S.-B., Antioxidant activity and cell toxicity of pressurised liquid extracts from 20 selected plant species in Jeju, Korea. Food Chemistry. 2010; 122 (3): 546-552.

Prasad, K. N.; Xie, H.; Hao, J.; Yang, B.; Qiu, S.; Wei, X.; Chen, F.; Jiang, Y., Antioxidant and anticancer activities of 8-hydroxypsoralen isolated from wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] peel. Food Chemistry. 2010; 118 (1): 62-66.

Lee, J.-Y.; Hwang, W.-I.; Lim, S.-T., Antioxidant and anticancer activities of organic extracts from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004; 93 (2-3): 409-415.

Siddhuraju, P.; Mohan, P. S.; Becker, K., Studies on the antioxidant activity of Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L.): a preliminary assessment of crude extracts from stem bark, leaves, flowers and fruit pulp. Food Chemistry. 2002; 79: 61-67.

Ho, S.-T.; Tung, Y.-T.; Cheng, K.-C.; Wu, J.-H., Screening, determination and quantification of major antioxidants from Balanophora laxiflora flowers. Food Chemistry. 2010; 122 (3): 584-588.

Su, X.-Y.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Liu, J.-R., In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Pinus koraiensis seed extract containing phenolic compounds. Food Chemistry. 2009; 117 (4): 681-686.

Russo, A.; Cardile, V.; Lombardo, L.; Vanella, L.; Vanella, A.; Garbarino, J. A., Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative action of methanolic extract of Geum quellyon Sweet roots in human tumor cell lines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 100 (3): 323-332.

Kamuhabwa A, Nshimo C, Witte P. Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000; 70 (2): 143-149.

Pretto JB, Cechinel-Filho V, Noldin V. n. F, Sartori M R K, Isaias D E B, Cruz A B. Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense. Z. Naturforsch. 2004; 59: 657-662.

Taher M, Idris M S, Ahmad F, Arbain D. A polyisoprenylated ketone from Calophyllum enervosum. Phytochemistry. 2005; 66 (6): 723-726.

Cottiglia, F.; Dhanapal, B.; Sticher, O.; Heilmann., a. J. r., New Chromanone Acids with Antibacterial Activity from Calophyllum brasiliense. J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67: 537-541.

Zou, J.; Jin, D.; Chen, W.; Wang, J.; Liu, Q.; Zhu, X.; Zhao., a. W., Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors from Calophyllum membranaceum. J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68: 1514-1518.

Li, Y.-Z.; Li, Z.-L.; Yin, S.-L.; Shi, G.; Liu, M.-S.; Jing, Y.-K.; Hua, H.-M., Triterpenoids from Calophyllum inophyllum and their growth inhibitory effects on human leukemia HL-60 cells. J.Fitoterapia. 2010.

Guilet, D.; raphin, D. S.; Rondeau, D.; Richomme, P.; Brunetona, J., Cytotoxic coumarins from Calophyllum dispar. Phytochemistry. 2001; 58: 571-575.

Hinneburg, I.; Damien Dorman, H. J.; Hiltunen, R., Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chemistry. 2006; 97 (1): 122-129.

Maiga, A.; Malterud, K. E.; Diallo, D.; Paulsen., B. S., Antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of the Malian medicinal plants Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F. White (Ebenaceae),Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel) Benth. (Rubiaceae) Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 104: 132-137.

Liu, Q.; Yao, H., Antioxidant activities of barley seeds extracts. Food Chemistry. 2007; 102 (3):732-737.

Öztürk, M.; Aydogmus-Öztürk, F.; Duru, M. E.; Topçu, G., Antioxidant activity of stem and root extracts of Rhubarb (Rheum ribes): An edible medicinal plant. Food Chemistry. 2007; 103 (2): 623-630.

Itharat, A.; Houghton, P. J.; Eno-Amooquaye, E.; Burke, P. J.; Sampson, J. H.; Raman, A., In vitro cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants used traditionally to treat cancer. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004; 90 (1): 33-38.

Amarowicz, R.; Estrella, I.; Hernández, T.; Robredo, S.; Troszynska, A.; Kosinska, A.; Pegg, R. B., Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and phenolic composition of green lentil (Lens culinaris). Food Chemistry. 2010; 121 (3): 705-711.

Taher, M.; Attoumani, N.; Susanti, D.; Ichwan, S. J. A.; Ahmad, a. F., Antioxidant activity of Leaves of Calophyllum rubiginosum. American Journal of Applied Science.2010;10 (7): 1305-1309.

Susanti, D.; Sirat, H. M.; Ahmad, F.; Ali, R. M.; Aimi, N.; Kitajima, M., Antioxidant and cytotoxic flavonoids from the flowers of Melastoma malabathricum L. Food Chemistry. 2007; 103 (3): 710-716.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

                AR Journals

18K, Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India

     (Design) 2009-2020


Follow @arjournals on Twitter