Gmelina arborea: chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and applications

Charu Arora, Vinita Tamrakar

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5138/09750185.2149

Abstract


Gmelina arborea (G. arborea) is a bio-prospective plant belonging to family verbenaceae. It is widely used for it’s medicinal properties from ancient times. The present paper comprehensively reviewed the traditional uses, medicinal properties and chemical constituents isolated from G. arborea based on literature reported as well as critical analysis of the research. The present article is aimed to provide information on recent advances and new foundations and direction for further exploring G. arborea for its applications. Pharmacological research reviewed that G. arborea possess various medicinal properties and biological  activities including antidiuretic, antidiarrhoeal, antipyretic, antianalgesic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, cardiopotective, insecticidal, antiulcer, gastro-protective, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic and immunomodulatory activity. It has been reported for its applications in treatment of bone fracture, hypertension and regeneration of β-cells. The main chemical constituents of G. arborea include lignans, iridoid glycoside, flavonoids, flavons, flavone glycoside and sterols. The present review provides all the references and beneficial directions to explore further application of G. arborea.


Keywords


Gmelina arborea, medicinal properties, antifungal activity, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents

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References


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Idu M, Ovuakporie-Uvo PO, Ndana RW. Preliminary Phytochemistry and In Vitro Antimicrobial Properties of The Chloroform and Ethanol Extracts of The Roots of Cedrela Odorata, Chlorophora Excelsa and Gmelina Arborea. International journal of Analytical, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Science (IJAPBS). 2015;4:117.

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Kawamura F, Ohara S. Antifungal activity of iridoid glycosides from the heartwood of Gmelina arborea, Holzforschung. 2005;59, 153.

Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project (F/FR ED), Growing multipurpose trees on small farms, module 9: Species fact sheets (2nd ed.). Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International. 1994;127.

Foelkel CE, Silvan, Zvinakevicius C, Siqueira LR. Pequenamonografiaprodução de celulose de Gmelina arborea. O. papel.1978;39:81.

Lugoa E, Brown S, Chapman JN, Analytical Review of production rates and stem wood biomass of tropical forest plantations. For Ecol Manag. 1988;23:179.

Moya R. Wood of Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica. New Forests. 2004; 28;299.

Chew LT, Ong CL. Urea-formaldehyde particleboard from yemane (Gmelina arborea). J Trop ForSci. 1989;1:26.

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Data base on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, New Delhi, CCRAS, dept of ISM & H. 2005;3:217.

Offor CE. Phytochemical and proximate analyses of dry Gmelina arborea leaves, Int J Curr Res Aca Rev. 2014;2:101.

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Anjaneyulu ASR, Rao KJ, Rao VK, Row LR, Pelter A, Ward RS. Novel hydroxyl lignans from the heartwood of Gmelina arborea, Tetrahedron.1977;33:133.

Anjaneyulu ASR, Madhusudhana Rao A, Kameswara Rao V, Ramachandra L, Pelter RA, Ward RS. The structure of gummadiol A lignan hemiacetal, Tetrahedron Letters.1975;16:1803.

Satyanarayana P, Rao K, Ward RS, Pelter A. Arborone and 7-oxo-dihydrogmelinol: two new keto-lignans from Gmelina arborea, J Nat Prod.1986;49:1061.

Whiting DA, Lignans, Neolignans, and Related Compounds. Nat Prod Rep.1990;7:349.

Saleem M, Kim HJ, Ali MS, LeeYS. An update on bioactive plant lignans. Nat Prod Rep.2005;22: 696.

Gordon GW. The diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds. Chem Soc Rev.1999;28:335.

Krishna CJ, Singh P, Pardasani RT. Chemical components of the roots of Tectonagrandis and Gmelina arborea. Planta medica.1977;32: 71.

Yadav AK, Tiwari N, Srivastav P, Singh SC, Shanker K, Verma RK, Gupta MM. Iridoid glycoside-based quantitative chromatographic fingerprint analysis: Arational approach for quality assessment of Indian medicinal plant Gambhari (Gmelina arborea). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.2008;47:841.

Hosny M, Rosazza PN. Gmelinosides, twelve acylated iridoid glycosides from Gmelina arborea. J Nat Prod.1998;61:734.

Tiwari N, Yadav AK, Srivastava P, Shanker K, Verma RK, Gupta MM. Iridoid glycosides from Gmelina arborea. Phytochemistry.2008; 69:2387.

Gu W, Hao XJ, Liu HX, Wang YH, Long CL. Acylated iridoid glycosides and acylated rhamnopyranoses from Gmelina arborea flowers. Phytochem. Lett.2013;6:681.

Dhakulkar S, Ganapathi TR, Bhargava S, Bapat VA. Induction of hairy roots in Gmelina arborea Roxb. and production of verbascoside in hairy roots. Plant Sci.2005;169:812.

Rao DV, Rao EV, Viswanadham N. Occurrence of luteolin in the leaves of Gmelina arborea, Linn. Curr Sci.1967;36:71.

Jang S, Kelley KW, Johnson RW, Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1, PNAS.2008;105:7534.

Ghareeb MA, Hussein AS, Hassan MFM, Laila AR, Mohamed MA, Saad AM. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoidal Compounds from Gmelina arborea Roxb. Global Journal of Pharmacology(GJP).2014;8:87.

DavisJM, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Devis B, Quercetin increase brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance, Am J PhysiolIntegr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:1071.

Olatunji G. Furanoresorcinol from the heartwood of Gmelina arborea, Cellulos Chem. Technol. 1999;33:37.

Nair AGR, Subramanian SS. Quercetagetin and other flavones from Gmelina arborea and Gmelina asiatica. Phytochem. 1975;14:1135.

Vidya VD, Gayatri MP, Ketan MT, Vijay NG. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method for quantization of apigenin from dried root powder of Gmelina arborea Linn., J. Planar. Chromot. 2007;20:179.

Satyanarayana P, Subrahmanyam P, Kasai R, Tanaka O. An apiose-containing Coumarin glycoside from Gmelina arborea root. Phytochem.1985;24:1862.

Ukkonen K. Non volatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea. Tappi.1982;65:71.

Adeyeye A. Composition of seed oils of Gmelina arborea and Teak Tectona-Grandis. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research.1991;34:359.

Lewis JR, Muscarine. Oxazole, Imidazole, Thiazole, and Peptide Alkaloids, and Other Miscellaneous Alkaloids. Natural Product Reports.1994;11:395.

Barik BR, Bhowmik T, Dey AK, Patra A, Chatterjee A. Joy SS. Premnazole an isoxazole alkaloid of Premnaintegrifolia and Gmelina arborea with antiinflammatory activity. Fitoterapia.1992;63:295.

Syamsul F, Takeshi K, Toshisada S. Chemical constituents From Gmelina arborea bark and their antioxidant activity. J wood sci. 2008;54:483.

Olumide S. Gabriel O. Resorcinol derivatives from Gmelina arborea, Cellul Chem Technol.1984;18:305.

Joshi KC, Singh LB. Isolation of ceryl alcohol and beta-sitosterol from Gmelina-arborea, Zeitschrift fur naturforschung part b-chemiebiochemiebiophysik biologic und verwandtengebiete. 1980;25:270.

Rao DV, Rao EV. Indian Journal of Pharmacy.1970;32:140.

Govindachari TR, Parthasarathy PC, Desai HK, Mohamed PA. Indian Journal of Chemistry. 1971;9:1027.

Basumatary S, Deka DC, Deka C, Dibakar C. Composition of biodiesel from Gmelina arborea seed oil. Advances in Applied Science Research.2012;3:2745.

Moronkola DO, Ogunwande IA, Ba!er KHC, Ozek T, Ozek G. Essential Oil Composition of Gmelina arborea Roxb., Verbenaceae, From Nigeria. J Essent Oil Res.2009;21:264.

Sravani P, Murali CM, Syed S, Sadik BS, Soubia SN. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Gmelina arborea Roxb., International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceuticals Research(IJAPR). 2011;2,157.

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